K Grammar/Intermediate Level 1

A. Verb ()ㄹ 뻔했어요 : I almost did it.

1) Verb stem ends with vowel : ㄹ 뻔했어요.
넘어질 뻔했어요.
I almost fell over.

2) Verb stem ends with consonant(final/받침): 을 뻔했어요.
지갑을 잃어버릴 뻔했어요.
I nearly lost my wallet.

  • 넘어지다 Fall over
  • 지갑 Wallet
  • 잃어버리다 Lost

 

B. As soon as : Verb 자마자

집에 도착하자마자 전화 주세요.
Please give me a call as soon as get you home.

  • 도착하다 Arrive
  • 전화 주다 has same meaning as전화 해 주다. When you ask somebody to call you, you could say: 전화 해 주세요 or 전화 주세요.

 

b2

 

C. Verb-()ㄴ 적이 있다/없다: I’ve done/ haven’t done something

1) Word stem ends with vowel: –ㄴ 적이 있다/없다.
찜질방에 가 본 적이 있어요. I’ve been to Korean sauna.

2) Word stem ends with consonant(final/받침): –은 적이 있다/없다.
산낙지를 먹은 적이 있어요. I’ve eaten a live squid.

  • 찜질방 Korean sauna
  • 산낙지 Live squid

b3

D. Intention : A/V –겠어요.- I am going to

배가 너무 고파서 뭐라도 좀 먹어야겠어요.
I am starving so I am going to eat some food first.

밤마다 치맥을 먹었더니 살이 너무 쪘어요. 이젠 끊어야겠어요.
I had chicken and beer every night, so I gained a lot of weight. I am going to stop now.

  • 라도 Particle : It means not great but passable. 
  • 마다 Postposition : Every single things
  • 치맥 Combination word of Chicken and beer. 치킨, 맥주. It’s a very popular menu in Korea.
  • Flesh. Fat
  • 살찌다 Gain weight
  • 끊다 Cut the thread, line, relationship. Stop doing things.

 

i.1

 

E. But- 하지만/그렇지만 vs –지만, 그러나 vs –

하지만, 그렇지만, 그러나 are conjunctive adverbs meaning “but”.
AV-
지만 is short form of 하지만 and 그렇지만. It connects two sentences into one sentence.

제 상사는 성격은 참 더러워요. 하지만 일 하나는 깔끔하게 해요.
제 상사는 성격은 참 더럽지만, 일 하나는 깔끔하게 해요.
My boss has a real bad temper, but he does his work really well.

AV-is short form of 그러나 and it connects two sentences into one sentence.

It’s more written or formal word than 하지만 or 그렇지만.

겨울은 추워서 싫어요. 그러나 크리스마스는 좋아요.
겨울은 추워서 싫으나, 크리스마스는 좋아요.
I don’t like winter because it’s cold, but I like Christmas.

  • 상사 Boss
  • 성격 Character, Personality
  • Really
  • 더럽다/ 성격이 더럽다 literal meaning is dirty. but when you talk about personality, it also means bad temper or a bad character.
  • 깔끔하다 Means neat. In this context 일을 깔끔하게 하다. it means does work really good.

i.2

F. A/V-잖아요. You know already.

A/V-잖아요 use when the other person already knows the fact which you are talking about, and when you want to talk about the subject in more detail.

우리 어제 출근하면서 태국 음식점 지나 왔잖아요. 근데 알고보니 거기가 연예인 홍석천씨 가게래요.
You know we passed a Thai restaurant on the way to come to the work yesterday.
Turns out that was the celebrity “Seok-cheon Hong”s shop.

It also used when you want to insist the fact which you said strongly.

거봐요. 내 말이 맞잖아요.
See. I was right.

  • 출근하다 Go to work
  • V ()면서 While, At the same time
  • 지나다 Pass
  • 근데 Short term of 그런데 means however or by the way
  • 거기 There
  • 연예인 Celebrity
  • 알고 보니 Turns out
  • 거봐요 Short term of 그거 봐요. means See?
  • 맞다 Right. True.

i.4

G. It can’t be : AV-() 리가 없다.

1) Word stem ends with vowel : ㄹ 리가 없다.
맽이 술자리에 빠질 리가 없지. 아이구 말도 마. 완전 술고래야.
If there is drinking to be done, Matt will definitely be there.
Oh my, don’t get me started. He’s a very heavy drinker.

2) Word stem ends with consonant(받침/final) : 을 리가 없다.
네가 청소를 했을 리가 없지. 아이구 지저분해. 믿은 내가 바보지.
You didn’t clean. Oh my, it’s messy. I was a fool to trust you.

  • 술자리 Go for a drink
  • 빠지다 Didn’t go
  • 술고래 Literally means “Alchoholic drink” and “Whale”. Means who drinks liquor like a whale drinks water. Same as heavy drinker.
  • 아이구 Exclamation. Wow, Gash, Oh my
  • 지저분하다 Messy
  • 믿다 Believe, Trust
  • 바보 Fool

 

i.5

I. V- //해 보다 : I’ve tried/experienced

1) Word stem ends with “” or “
V
아 보다.
폴 씨, 찜질방에 가 봤어요? 가면 훈제 맥반석 계란이랑 식혜 한번 먹어 보세요.
Paul, have you been to a Korean sauna? When you go, try smoked egg on elvan stone and try a rice drink.

2) Word stem ends with 하다/do.
V
해 보다.
여친이 삐졌을 땐 뿌잉뿌잉 해 보세요. 아마 좋아할 거예요. 물론 경우에 따라선 더 화를 낼 수도 있겠지만.
When your girlfriend sulks, try
뿌잉뿌잉. She might like it. Of course depends on the case, she might even get angrier…

3) In all other cases
V
어 보다.
원지를 입어 보니까 따뜻하긴 한데, 화장실에 갈 때 좀 불편해요.
I tried on a onesie and I thought it’s warm but it’s inconvenient when I need to go to the toilet.

  • 찜질방 Korean sauna
  • 맥반석 Elevan stone – Korea has many products made out with this stone for the health reasons.
  • 가면 가다+그러면 go then
  • 계란 Egg
  • 식혜 Rice drink
  • 여친 여자친구/Short term
  • 삐지다 sulk
  • 뿌잉뿌잉 The motion of rubbing two fists on your cheeks. Considered as 애교/Cute behaviour.
  • 아마 Maybe
  • 물론 Of course
  • 경우에 따라선(서는) Depends on the case, situation
  • 화장실 Bathroom, Toilet
  • 불편하다 Inconvenient

i7

 

J. Can/Can’t : V-()ㄹ 수 있다/없다.

1) Word stem ends with a vowel: ㄹ 수 있다.
귀찮게 해서 미안하지만, 저 책 좀 집어 줄 수 있어요? 손이 안 닿아요.
I am sorry to bother you but, could you grab that book for me? I can’t reach it.

2) Word stem ends with a consonant(받침/final) :을 수 있다.
존 씨는 나를 잊고 살 수 있어요? 난 그럴 수 없어요. 나만 바본가봐요.
John, can you forget me? I can’t forget you. Maybe I am the only fool here.

  • 귀찮게 해서 To bother somebody
  • 집다 Pick
  • 닿다 Reach
  • 잊다 Forget
  • 살다 Live
  • 나만 Only me
  • 인가 보다 Maybe

i.8

 

K. How could you V-() ㄹ 수() 있다
It can’t be V-(
) ㄹ 수() 없다

We learnt V-() ㄹ 수 있다 means can yesterday.
But it also means “how could you” or “it can’t be!” as well.

1) Word stem ends with a vowel: V –ㄹ 수() 있다/없다
어쩜 사람들이 나만 쏙 빼놓고 노래방을 갈 수가 있어요? 나한테는 한 마디 말도 없이.
How could all of you just go to the karaoke without me? You didn’t even say anything to me.

2) Word stem ends with a consonant(받침/final) : V- ㄹ 수() 있다/없다
니가 머리털 난 짐승이면 에미한테 이럴 수 없는 거야. 내가 널 어떻게 키웠는데!
If you are a human, you can’t do this to your mother. I pour so much effort to raising you!
(It’s a cliche line in K Drama, when mother is against her son’s marriage)

  • 어쩜 어쩌면/Short term. How dare
  • 빼놓다 쏙 빼놓다 Without somebody (like you didn’t invite someone)
  • 노래방 Korean karaoke
  • 한테 To somebody
  • 한 마디 Single word
  •  머리털 난 짐승 Literal meaning is “an animal which has a hair”. That means “human”.
  • 에미 This is a very old word. The actual word you should say is 어미. When people say 에미 it is the wrong expression. But many people speak like this. It means mother. It is usually used when the mother identifies herself. It is also used by mothers when they are addressing their daughter in law.
  • 키우다 Raise

i.9

 

L. Before and After : N 전에, N 후에

N 전에 : Before, Ago
지금이라도 괜찮으니까, 더 늦기 전에 하고 싶은 걸 해.
Now is ok, so do whatever you want to do before it’s too late.

N 후에: After, later
나이 든 후에 돌이켜보니, 그 땐 왜 그렇게 철이 없었는지 몰라.
After casting my eyes back over my life, I don’t know why I was immature at those times.

  • N ()라도 Choose N because there’s nothing better than N
  •  ()니까 Because
  • 나이 든/ 나이들다 Getting old
  • 돌이키다/ 돌이켜보다 Casting your eyes back/looking back
  • 그렇게 Like that
  • 철이 없다 Immature

i.10

 

M. And then :V-고 나서

먼저 눈이라도 좀 붙이고 나서 생각해보죠.
Let’s get some sleep first and then think about it.

  • 먼저 First(of all)
  • 눈을 붙이다 Literal meaning is “glue the eyes together”. But it means “Get some sleep.”

koreantutor.co.uk

Click articles about, How to make 김밥(Korean Seaweed Roll), Korean Movies, Traditional Wedding and more. 

 

If you are interested in studying, book a lesson by getting in touch below:

      • Phone me on 07792429706
      • Fill the contact form below:

Your Name (required)

Your Email (required)

Subject

Your Message

Amy

Amy Kim is a South Korean native who relocated to Manchester. When not teaching Korean, she spends her free time reading & painting.