K- Grammar/ Beginning Level 1


A. Subject Particle Noun /

1) Word stem ends with vowel: Noun
챔프가 Champ is

2) Word stem ends with consonant(final/받침): Noun
서울이 Seoul is

What is the difference between ,?

,is a subject particle as well, but it describes object or verb parts, rather than focusing on the subject part.

챔프는 파리를 무서워해요.
Champ is scared of flies.

,focusing on the subject part rather than object or verb.

챔프가 고양이를 쫓아다녀요.
Champ is chasing a cat.

  • 파리 a Fly
  • 무서워하다 Scared
  • 고양이 Cat
  • 쫓아다니다 Chasing


B. Object Particle: Noun /

1)Word stem ends with vowel:
지금 영화를 봐요. I am watching a movie now.

2)Word stem ends with consonant(final/받침):
불고기를 먹어요. I am eating 불고기.

  • 지금 Now
  • 영화 Movie
  • 봐요 보다 See, Watch
  • 먹어요 먹다 Eat

C. To be: Noun –이에요/예요.

1) Word stem ends with vowel: –예요.
최고예요. It’s the best.

2) Word stem ends with consonant(final/받침): –이에요.
대박이에요. It’s awesome.

  • 최고 Best
  • 대박 Literally it means bonanza. It has the meaning as awesome, brilliant, amazing. But you could also use it as weird or crazy too.

D. Negative : A/ V – Not

안 먹어요. Not eating. 안 봐요. Not watching. 안 가요. Not going.

  • 먹다 Eat
  • 보다 See/ Watch
  • 가다 Go





E. What – 무슨 vs

무슨 N- It comes in front of noun.
무슨 일을 해요? What do you do?

V- It comes in front of verb.
뭐 해요? What are you doing?

  •  Work
  •  Do


F. Can’t do/ Not good at- V

저는 요리를 못해요.
I can’t cook/ I am not good at cooking.

챔프는 닭고기를 못 먹어요. 알레르기가 있어요.
Champ can’t eat chicken. He has an allergy.

  • 저는 I am/ Polite way of speaking(존댓말)
  • 요리 Cooking
  • Chicken.
  • 고기 Meat
  • 먹다 Eat
  • 알레르기 Allergy


G. Tense 1- Present Tense : AV- 아요/어요/해요

1) Word stem ends with vowel “” or ““.
런닝맨을 봐요. I watch Running man.

2) Word stem ends with 하다/do.
자기야. 설거지 좀 해() Baby, please wash the dishes.

3) In all other cases
어우, 너무 예뻐요.

  • 봐요 보다/+아요봐요. Watch, See
  • 자기야 Baby, Sweet heart
  • 설거지하다 Wash the dishes
  • Please
  • 어우 Exclamation, Wow, Hew, Oh my god
  • 너무 Really
  • 예쁘다 예쁘/예뻐요. Pretty


H. Past Tense: A/V –았어요/었어요/했어요

1) Word stem ends with “” or ““.
어제 학교에 안 갔어요.
I didn’t go to school yesterday.

2) Word stem ends with 하다/do.
작년에 영국을 여행했어요. 좋았어요.
I traveled England last year. It was good.

3) In all other cases
많이 보고 싶었어요. 그동안 어디 갔었어요?
I missed you a lot. Where have you been?

  • 어제 Yesterday
  • 학교 School
  • Not
  • 작년 Last year
  • 영국 England
  • 여행하다 Travel
  • 좋다 Good
  • 많이 A lot.
  • 보고 싶다 Miss
  • 그동안 While
  • 어디 Where


I. Present Continuos: V –는 중이다. In the middle of.

잠깐만 기다려 주세요. 지금 옷을 갈아 입고 있는 중이에요.
Wait a minuet please. I am changing my clothes now.

  • 잠깐 A moment
  • 기다려 주세요. Please wait.
  • 지금 Now
  • Clothes
  • 갈아 입다 Change clothes


J. Present Continuous : V –고 있다.

나중에 전화 해 주세요. 지금은 수업을 듣고 있어요.
Please ring me later. I am in the class now.

  • 나중에 Later
  • 전화 Phone
  • 해 주세요. Please do
  • 지금 Now
  • 수업 Lesson, Class
  • 듣다 Listen


K. Future Tense : V-()ㄹ 거예요.

1) Word stem ends with a vowel : –ㄹ 거예요.
돈을 많이 벌면, 유럽 여행을 갈 거예요.
When I make a lot of money, I will travel to Europe.

2) Word stem ends with a consonant(받침/final):-을 거예요.
내일은 친구가 술을 살 거예요.
Tomorrow my friend will buy me a drink.

  • Money
  • 많이 A lot
  • (돈을) 벌다 Earn/ Make money
  • 유럽 Europe
  • 여행 Travel
  • 가다 Go
  • 내일 Tomorrow
  • 친구 Friend
  • Alcoholic beverage
  • 사다 Buy


L. From to: N에서(부터) N까지

런던에서 맨체스터까지 얼마나 걸려요?
How long does it take from London to Manchester?

머리부터 발끝까지 깔맞춤이에요.
From the head to toe, she/he matched his clothes in the same colour.

  • 얼마나 How many/much
  •  걸리다 Take time
  •  머리 Head
  •  Feet
  •  End
  •  깔맞춤 Slang. Matched colour.



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Amy Kim is a South Korean native who relocated to Manchester. When not teaching Korean, she spends her free time reading & painting.